1900-1949

1900 – The Marine Parade Coastguard Station, dating from 1759, was demolished and replaced by a large block of flats, stores, a lookout etc. It was initially the main Coastguard station in the Hastings area, but was closed and replaced by the much smaller Fairlight Coastguard Station (rebuilt in the early 1900s) in 1927-28, when it was also renamed as Sturdee Place, after Admiral Sturdee. Also in the early 1900s a new Coastguard station was built on the corner of Bexhill Road and Cinque Ports Way (now housing).

1900 Jan 12 – Hastings Council advertised for people to apply for licences ‘to run two motor cars to be ready for plying for hire by Easter next’. The cars had to be built in such a way as to comply with the regulations of the Locomotives on Highways Act 1896. These were to be the first Hastings taxis. The first two started work that Easter. On 28 June 1901 the Council agreed to allow more than two cars to have licences.

1900 Jan 21 – Death of Frederick Parsons, aged 55, who had turned the Hastings Observer into the most influential newspaper in the town from the 1870s onwards. He was born in Rye on 6 October 1844, the eldest son of Isaac Parsons, a newspaper proprietor and printer. In 1864 Frederick moved to Hastings where his father had started publishing the weekly Hastings Herald in 1861. The Observer was bought from its founder Mr JH Knight in 1866 and merged with the Herald, being called the Observer from 1873. Over the following years he created a big business, centred in Hastings, but with ramifications extending along the south-east coast. When he died, he owned the newspaper and the large printing and stationery business in Claremont, and was director of many other companies, including the Albany Hotel (of which he was chairman), Skinners, the Hastings Bus Company, the Electric Light Company and the Steamboat Company. He was ‘an orthodox Conservative’ and freemason. He lived at Cumberland House, Laton Road, next door to Blacklands Church. 

1900 March 21 – Death of Joseph Tendall, born 1840, owner of the Hastings News, at his home, 144 Marina. He had bought the pro-Liberal News in 1872, doubling its size and cutting its price. The News was the main rival of the Observer.

1900 April 14 – Norman Road Methodist Chapel burnt down.

1900 May 16 – The White Mill, the smock windmill on the Ridge close to Winchelsea Road, was burnt down. It had been a well-known landmark. It was not rebuilt. The base has survived and has been roofed in; it is next to Sandown School.

1900 July – The Hastings Tramways Company was set up, following the passing of the Hastings Tramways Act in this month. The act authorised routes in Hastings and St Leonards with overhead power lines. Another act in 1903 authorised routes to and from Bexhill, but not with overhead lines along the seafront, and this was to cause major technical difficulties for many years. There was also considerable disagreement about how the system would be built, and by whom, which concluded in 1904, and a new company, the Hastings and District Tramways Company. was set up. Construction began in December 1904 (cf).

1900 July 6 – The Ice House, the new ice-making plant in Rock-a-Nore Road, was opened. It was the first of its type in the Hastings area, making large blocks of ice for many sectors of the food trade, including fishing. It was demolished in 2007 and replaced by a much larger block of flats and other uses.

1900 Aug 16 – Fisherman William Button was drowned when catching whelks near St Leonards Pier, leaving a widow and five children.

1900 Oct 2 – In the general election, the Liberal, Freeman Freeman-Thomas won, with 3,399 votes against Conservative Edward Boyle’s 3,191, a majority of 209. Born 1866, the ex-cricket captain for Eton College he had married Marie Adelaide, daughter of Baron Thomas Brassey (1836–1918) in 1892. At the 1906 general election he lost his Hastings seat, but soon won a by-election for Bodmin.

1901 Jan 7 – Opening of the new St Helens School, opposite the cemetery on the Ridge, owing to the growth of the district. The old Infants School at St Helens  transfered to the new building.

1901 March – A large new bread factory, said to be the biggest for miles around, opened at 10 Earl Street.

1901 March 13 – Winston Churchill MP, correspondent for the Morning Post during the Boer War, gave two lectures at the Royal Concert Hall, Warrior Gardens, on ‘How I Saw the War’. It was illustrated by limelight views. He stayed at the Grand Hotel.

1901 March 15 – The Council agreed there should be a new bandstand for the White Rock Baths Promenade, to replace the existing disgraceful structure, which was too small. The cost would be £248, which some councillors felt to be mean. The new bandstand was completed on 17 July, and the old one was put up in Alexandra Park in mid-August.

1901 May 6 – A new volunteer riflemen’s rifle range opened in Warren Glen. The site was provided on long lease at a nominal rent by the Rev WC Sayer-Milward. The firing points were on the west side of the valley, facing due north at two targets standing in front of a high bank. The point for the longest range (600 yards) was only a few yards over the bank by Lovers Seat, while the 200 yard point was considerably raised, forming the roof of a magazine and store. The site was almost that of what had been an artillery range. The Ecclesbourne Glen range had become crowded.

1901 June 5 – The new Norman Road Wesleyan Church was dedicated; the previous one, on the same site, having burnt down in 1900.

1901 July 22 – The 14-year old Hastings and St Leonards Co-operative Society went into liquidation. It had been running its Co-operative Stores at 41-42 Salisbury Road, Bohemia, since late 1889. For many years this had been successful, and it still had 275 members, but by late 1901 trade had fallen away, partly because of rival neighbouring shops.

1901 Oct 11 – The new Hastings lifeboat, the Charles Arkcoll II, took over from the 20-year old Charles Arkcoll. She was an open rowing boat with sails, but no engine, and 35 feet long, with a beam of eight feet six inches. The cost for her was paid from the remainder of the £2,000 legacy from Charles Arkcoll. Her normal crew was 13. She was replaced by the engine-driven Cyril and Lilian Bishop in April 1931, having been launched 25 times, saving 28 lives.

1901 Oct 18 – Hastings Council gave planning permission for Mr GT Kellog-Jenkins to build 110 houses on the Halton House which he had bought in December 1900. The estate had been ‘a desolate and dreary waste for some time’ (cf 1895). The Observer of 22 December 1900 said that the houses would be low rent, and aimed at ‘artisans’. They ‘will be admirably suited for acquisition by artisans under clauses of the Housing of the Working Classes Act 1890 … and will be of great advantage to the working classes generally. It will, indeed form quite a model colony.’ Work began in late 1901 and by mid-1902 houses were to let in the new roads Rotherfield Avenue and Hardwicke Road. The plans for laying out this estate had been approved on 7 June 1895, and since then the roads had been shaped and kerbed, and sewers laid.

1901 Dec 12 – The large new underground public toilets in Harold Place opened for business.

1901 Late – Robert Tressell (1870-1911), the future author of the highly influential working class novel The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists, arrived in Hastings, which he was to make the setting of his book, which was published in 1914. He was a painter and decorator, and had to come to Hastings from South Africa with his young daughter Kathleen, who he had to support. They lived first at 1 Plynlimmon Road, then 115 Milward Road until about 1906. He worked for about a year with builders Bruce & Co in York Place, then for for undertakers and painters Burton & Co in Stonefield Road. In 1906 he went to work for builders Adams & Jarrett in Norman Road, and soon after went to live in a flat at 241 London Road. It was while living and working in St Leonards, from c1906-1909, that he wrote most of the book, much of which is set in large St Leonards houses.

1902 – Fred Judge, aged 29, moved to Hastings from Wakefield, and set up what was to become his world-famous postcard business, initially at 21a Wellington Place. Probably the first of his c60,000 different cards showed the storm of 10-11 September 1903. In 1905 he moved to larger premises at 42 White Rock, now Marriotts Photo Stores.

1902 – The Hastings District Nursing Association was formed to supply nurses to poorer people. It was based at 2 Halloway Place, at the bottom of Old London Road, with a branch in St Leonards.

1902 – Opening of the new railway line from Crowhurst Station, on the Hastings-Tunbridge Wells line, to Sidley and Bexhill, via a massive 17-arch viaduct over the Crowhurst marshes. This branch line closed in June 1964 and the archway was demolished in 1969.

1902 Early – Hastings Golf Club gave up the use of the six holes on the public portion of the East Hill. Six new holes were made off Barley Lane so that the whole course was then on private ground.

1902 Feb 1 – The annual meeting of the Charity Organisation Society heard that the number of applications for assistance more than doubled in 1901 compared with 1900 – up from 612 to 1,291. Aid was given in 808 cases, nearly twice 1900. Spending was £454 14s on aid and £161 15s on admin (36% of total spending), £100 of that being the secretary’s salary. Mr LH Elford, the secretary, denied that ‘too much is spent on office expenses’. The society handed out 736 bread and grocery orders, 77 coal orders, 85 nourishment orders, 29 railway fares, 17 items of clothing and 31 pairs of boots. A member said the figures showed ‘there was a great deal of distress in Hastings and St Leonards’.

1902 March 8 – Poultry rearing had become a new industry for Hastings, said the Hastings Mail. A ‘thriving poultry farm’ at the Hawkwood Poultry Farm was started a year ago in Hollington by Mr Eliot Schneider ‘who is determined to create an industry in home-grown birds and English eggs’. The birds ‘are looked after with a care that is well-nigh fatherly. … In such ways are the birds cared for, and treated more as living creatures than unfeeling objects, as is too often the case.’ [The house Hawkwood is now 11 Upper Glen Road.]

1902 May 31 – The new railway line linking Bexhill to the Hastings-Charing Cross line at Crowhurst opened. The four and a half mile track ran from Crowhurst via a 17-arch brick viaduct across the Crowhurst Marshes to a station at Sidley and then to the new Bexhill West station. This new line was separate from the Hastings-to-Brighton Bexhill station and line because of the intense rivalry between the owners of the Brighton and Charing Cross lines. The new Crowhurst railway service gave Bexhill faster trains to London, turning the town into a desirable residence for commuters, and thereby adding to the prosperity of the town in the coming decades. The siting of the Bexhill West station opened up that area of the town for development. The closure of the Crowhurst line in 1964, a victim of the Beeching axe, did much damage to Bexhill, losing its role as a commuter town and turning it into more of a rest home for the aged.

1902 Aug 10 – The new East Hill Lift opened to the public. The Council had given it the go-ahead in February 1901, saying it would rise 148 feet vertically, with its rails covering 258 feet, at a gradient of 1 in 1.66. It would be run by water balance, with the pumping fuelled by the Dust Destructor at Rock-a-Nore. It would run beside the steps going up from Tackleway. The cars would hold 20 people and would take a minute and a half to run. The total cost would be £5,100. The landowner, the Rev WC Sayer-Milward, had been generous over the matter. Some councillors doubted that it would pay for itself. Others wanted it not to run on Sundays for religious reasons, although that would be its busiest day. Human bones were found during the lift’s excavations. On 22 September 1902 there was a serious accident when the two carriages failed to stop because of the failure of the braking system. Thirteen people were hurt. The lift was then closed until re-opening on 9 April 1903, then taking 41,000 passengers in the first 16 weeks.

1902 Aug 19 – Death of Maurice Sarsfield Walsh JP, editor of the Hastings Observer in its early years. He died at his home, 4 St Helens Terrace, aged 59. ‘He was a power in the local Conservative world, and many of the triumphs of that Party in Hastings have been attributed to his influence.’

1902 Oct 1 – The Holy Trinity parish hall opened.

1902 Nov 1 – A new association was formed to protect the interest of dogs. The Canine Association for Hastings and St Leonards and East Sussex was inaugurated at the office of accountant Mr Ernest E Fox, 37 Havelock Road.

1902 Dec 31 – Following the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, a bronze statue of her as she looked at the time of her 1887 jubilee was unveiled in Warrior Square. It is still there, with a Second World War bullet hole from a German bomber in the front skirt, knee height.

1903 Jan-Feb – Hastings Council decided to split Sedlescombe Road into Sedlescombe Road South and Sedlescombe Road North, as they are today. Also: Park Road became Lower Park Road and Upper Park Road; Castle Road and Castle Hill became Castle Hill Road; Union Street became part of Courthouse Street.

1903 March 12 – The first Hastings motor bus started in service, between the Fishmarket and West Marina. The first bus was an open-top double-decker Milnes-Daimler, and it was the basis of what developed into the first fleet of double-deckers to provide a regular and more-or-less reliable double-decker service anywhere in the country. The second bus started operations on 20 or 21 July 1903, and another six by late September. Many local authorities sent representatives to examine the successful Hastings service. The Daily Express of 29 August 1903 said: ‘The superb ride on top of a rubber-tyred motor omnibus from one end of the three-mile seafront to the other is one of the attractions of Hastings.’

1903 April 22 – The new Hastings Workhouse was declared open at a big ceremony. The ‘Palace of the Poor’ building occupied a 9½ acre site in Frederick Road on the other side of the road from the old 1837 workhouse, which continued in use as part of the new set-up. A 240-yard subway connected the two. There were 66 cell-like rooms for men, a dining room 70 feet by 40 feet and a kitchen with a 63-gallon tea boiler. ‘The men leave the dining room by different doors from the women, whose quarters are entirely separate.’ There were then 258 inmates, with 90 in the infirmary. The scheme cost £55,000. The Local Government Board since c1869 had been criticising the existing workhouse, and the board of guardians had unsuccessfully explored several other schemes.

1903 May 6 – Unveiling of the South African War Memorial stone on the promenade at White Rock, commemorating the 46 men of Hastings and St Leonards who died in the 1899-1902 Second Boer War. It was an obelisk standing 22 feet high, of Peterhead granite, and costing £325.

1903 Aug 20 – Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show put on a big performance, in fields off St Helens Road.

1903 Sept 12 – A motor boat trial took place in the harbour. Councillor Blackman and friends engaged in giving a trial to a new petrol motor boat, built by Mr Duffie. The run took place in the smooth water between the Harbour arms.

1904 – Hastings Council renamed Cackle Street as Frederick Road, in honour of Alderman Frederick Tuppenney, chairman of the workshop’s board of guardians, who had been the driving force in building the new extenion to the workhouse. All the workhouse later became St Helens Hospital.

1904 – The Fairlight Coastguard Station was rebuilt on its existing site. It formed the terrace of houses still there today, with lookout facilities on the seaward end of the block. At about this time, and in immediately following years, the government cut down the size of the national Coastguard service, and this seems to have resulted in the closure of the Haddocks and Ecclesbourne Stations.

1904 Jan 1 – The Motor Act 1903 came into force, requiring all motor vehicles to display registration letters and numbers. Hastings Council was given the letters DY, and the first applicant was Mr Jules Mastin, a partner in Mastins drapery store, who was awarded DY 1.

1904 Jan 4 – The millionaire Irish businessman Mr Harvey Du Cros was chosen as the prospective Conservative candidate for Hastings in the next election. Mr Du Cros was making his fortune from the pneumatic tyre industry. He ran many companies in the trade, and was the one-time owner of the Dunlop tyre company, which he sold for £3 million in 1896. He was born in Dublin on 19 June 1846 and was living in a very large mansion at Howbery Park, Wallingford, Berkshire. He was a small, wiry man, with a long and carefully waxed moustache. He was very self-confident and an eloquent speaker, with an engaging personality. Du Cros made his first ‘public appearance’ on 6 January at the annual dinner of the Hastings and St Leonards Cycling Club, in the Castle Hotel. Chairman of the event was local Liberal Mp Mr Freeman-Thomas. Cycling was a popular local sport and there was a very large attendance. Du Cros had always been a keen cyclist, and it was this that made him realise the need and market for pneumatic tyres, first with cycles, then motor vehicles. He was to win the 1906 general election.

1904 Jan 19 – A Mail reporter at the Grove Road Mission Hall in Ore saw ‘the enormous amount of poverty prevalent in this part of town, the spectacle of a long procession of a variety of individuals, mostly women, with haggard faces, poorly clothed, and some with little children toddling beside them, and wearing boots and shoes which had not for a long time kept out the wet’. Each was examined at considerable length by the Committee. ‘Large numbers of the applicants had neither coal nor food in the house.’

1904 Jan 20 – A parade was organised by the Friendly Societies to aid the unemployed and relieve the acute distress prevailing in the town. There was a torchlight procession, marshalled in Wellington Square, with bands and banners, and many in fancy dress. It was initiated by the Hastings Bonfire Boys. The parade collected £14 12s 5d. The News said this was ‘the worst winter for 38 years’.

 1904 Feb 27 – The Mail editorial said: ‘There is still in the borough an extraordinary degree of poverty arising from scarcity of work. … There is, unhappily, no immediate prospect of increased commercial prosperity.’ For several coming weeks assistance was needed. ‘The ability of a considerable number of the inhabitants to subscribe may be less, at the present moment, than for some years past, but there is, notwithstanding, plenty of money in the town. The sum spent in the course of a few days at the Conservative bazaar … serves to show that money is plentiful.’

1904 March 8 – The Royal Victoria Hotel re-opened ‘after undergoing almost complete reconstruction’. It had the ‘latest labour-saving devices and appliances’. It had been closed for nearly a year, and £10,000 had been spent on it.

1904 April 16 – A meeting was held in the Princess Room of the Royal Concert Hall, Warrior Gardens, to establish a branch of the Central Society for Women’s Suffrage. The Liberals and Tories united and a society was formed.

1904 May – In the earliest days of motorised road vehicles, Hastings Council decided to set up its first traffic warning signs: red triangles at 18 locations ‘denoting dangerous corners, cross roads and precipitous places’. This was in compliance with the 1903 Motor Car Act. The first Hastings case under the Motor Car Act 1903 was heard at Hastings Magistrates Court on Thursday 19 May. A visitor, Mr Ralph F Dickerson, was charged with ‘driving to the danger of the public’. PC Wallis ‘saw the defendant driving furiously through Robertson Street on Sunday, 24 April, at from 17-18 miles an hour. He was driving eastward.’ He went as far as the Memorial and then came back. There was a large number of pedestrians. The PC shouted for him to stop, but he did not, and increased his speed to 20. As he had a previous similar conviction elsewhere, he was fined £10, plus £1 3s 6d costs. But in November he won his appeal.

1904 May 7 – A cat belonging to William Tapsell of 29 Brewery Cottages, High Street, gave birth this week to a kitten with two bodies but only one head. It was put down.

1904 May 21 – A letter in the Mail complained of the way women watched men bathe at their naked bathing area at Rock-a-Nore. ‘The bathing attendants should be instructed to see that the privacy of the men’s free station is not intruded upon by brazen-faced women, who have no shame, but sit and loll about the beach in full view of the bathers.’

1904 May 28 – The hastings fishing boat William and Maria, owned by John Gallop, struck a submerged pile near Hastings Harbour and foundered. The crew had a very narrow escape and, but for the conduct of ‘Biddy’ Stonham, the skipper would have perished. On 30 May the vessel was dragged from the harbour mouth and beached, very badly damaged. The National Lifeboat Institution awarded a medal for the heroism shown by Biddy Stonham in rescuing the skipper. Biddy later became famous as ‘Biddy the Tubman’.

1904 July 16 – ‘Now that motor cars have to bear an index mark and number’, the Mail printed a list of all UK indexes, including: Hastings – DY, East Sussex – AP, West Sussex – BP, Brighton – CD and Kent – D.

1904 Aug 27 – The ‘smallest car in the world’ took part in a motor gymkhana meeting at Horntye Field, Bohemia. The six feet long car, with a 2½ hp engine, was driven by Master George Du Cros, aged five. The event started with a procession of 30 vehicles along the seafront from Warrior Square. Official figures showed that in England and Wales on 1 April 1904 there were 13,302 cars and 14,771 motor bikes.

1904 Sept 3 – The White Rock Gardens, on the hill opposite Hastings Pier, opened. The area had been acquired by the Council in 1902, but it was to take until 1920 to completely re-landscape it.

1904 Oct – Trial production took place at the huge new Hastings gas works at Glyne Gap. Work on the 14 acre site had started in 1900, and the works were brought into full use in 1907. Gas was made from coal, and the works were built just outside the borough boundary in order to avoid paying the high tax on the import of coal into the town. From 1830 gas had been manufactured where Morrisons supermarket is today, off Queens Road; work ceased here on 6 June 1907. A new railway station opened at Glyne Gap, being a small halt just to the east of the pedestrian tunnel under the line; it closed in 1915. The Ravenside shopping centre is now on the site of the gas works. The gas company was nationalised in 1948.

1904 Dec – Hastings Council decided that, as the whole of Alexandra Park had been enclosed by an ‘unclimbable iron fence’, the park should be closed at night and all the footpaths in it discontinued.

1904 Dec 2 – Hastings Council on 2 December decided to take full control of the museum from the Museum Association because the museum was running at a loss. The upkeep of the museum was £130 per annum and the number of visitors per year was 28,000.

1904 Dec 7 – Work began at Baldslow on constructing the town’s first tramway tracks. From 1,500 to 2,000 men were to be employed in excavating the roads. Local men were to be preferred for the unskilled work. The trams came into service on 31 July 1905.

1904 Dec 9 – Most of the large drapery store Mastins, in Breeds Place (where Iceland is today), was destroyed in the largest fire ever faced by the Volunteer Fire Brigade. Nearly £12,000 of damages was caused. The drapery establishment was partially ruined. This was the first time in the history of the Hastings fire brigade that all the men were called out, and the scene was captured by Judges on their postcards. Mastins had opened in 1872, and it remained the leading family business in the town until it closed in 1969. It stood empty until 1972 and was then demolished.

1905 Early Jan – The inaugural meeting of the Hastings and St Leonards branch of the Typographical Association was held in the Clarence Hotel, Middle Street. They hoped to have 30-40 members in three months.

1905 Jan 5 – Miss Edith Rhodes, a sister of Cecil Rhodes, founder of Rhodesia, died at her residence in Maze Hill. She was well-known in the town. Some of the Rhodes family also stayed at Fairlight Place in earlier years.

1905 Jan 27 – Two thousand children were given teas by Mr and Mrs Delevanti in the Market Hall in George Street, this being the fifth year in which Mrs Delevantl had organised this treat for the poor children ‘to provide a few hours happiness’. They were given crackers, bonbons and paper hats. After tea there was music, a magic lantern, a magician, a ventriloquist and punch and judy.

1905 Feb 4 – The 14th annual report of the Hastings and St Leonards Association for Organising Charitable Relief said there were 2,963 applications for assistance in 1904, up 1,203 (68%) on the 1,760 in 1903. There were 2,222 bread and grocery orders, 423 coal orders. The early period of 1904 was of ‘great distress. … Owing to lack of employment the distress continued during the rest of the year, and there seems to be little hope of improvement.’ During the year there was a ‘great stride’ in the unification of the various relief agencies: distress committees in the Old Town, Ore, West Hill; soup kitchens in West Hill, Clive Vale, Halton, Ore, St Peters and the coffee tavern; committees also in Hollington, Silverhill and Bohemia.

1905 March 1 – Hastings Council took over the ownership and running of Hastings Museum in an elaborate ceremony led by the mayor, before a large and influential gathering. Collecting exhibits had started in 1889, and the Museum Association was formed in 1891. The museum was given to the Council by the association because it had been running at a loss.

1905 March 15 – A meeting was held in Christ Church parish room, Ore, to establish a creche and children’s cottage hospital for Ore and Clive Vale. The meeting was convened by neighbourhood practitioner Dr AH Huckle, who said that one of the first things to appeal to him when he started his work in the district was the utter destitution and poverty of the poor. … The poor of the town were poorer and more destitute than in the worst parts of London in which he had practised. The Rev WC Cooper, vicar of Christ Church, said ‘the suffering the children had to put up with was really indescribable. … If it were not for the women working it would mean starvation for many families.’

1905 March 18 – Opening of a new small fire station in Seaside Road (now demolished).

1905 July 5 – The first three tram cars arrived at the Hastings goods railway station. They were then taken to the car station at Silverhill by a traction engine pulling them up Cambridge Road. Each was built to carry 42 passengers, 22 outside and 20 inside, and were painted pale yellow and brown. The words ‘Hastings Tramways’ appeared on the sides. The current was put on the lines on the night of the 13th.

1905 July 15 – There was a successful trial trip of the tramcars through Hastings. A very large crowd assembled at Silverhill depot, with cameras. The car was cheered by spectators as it passed Beaufort Road, through Bohemia to the Memorial, and was surrounded by people. The car then went along St Helens Road by Alexandra Park, and round the town. The Board of Trade inspection took place on 20 July.

1905 July 31 – The town’s first tram service started, with 19,000 people using them on the first day. ‘The struggle for seats was astonishing in the vicinity of the Memorial.’ The fare was considerably cheaper than the motor buses. An electricity-generating power station for the trams had been constructed in Parker Road, with a sub-station at Silverhill. Initially there was just a circular route from the Silverhill depot, via Sedlescombe Road North, the Ridge, Ore, Mount Pleasant, Blacklands, Queens Road, the town centre and Bohemia Road to Silverhill, with a branch line from Silverhill up Battle Road. Much of the circular route was rural, and the tram system encouraged large scale development in the northern part of the town. A branch from Ore to the bottom of Harold Road opened on 24 August 1905. Another branch from Silverhill down London Road opened on 28 July 1906, and the separate Bopeep-Bexhill line opened 9 April 1906. But the final section, along the seafront from Bopeep to the Memorial, did not open until 12 January 1907 because the power had to come from studs buried in the roadway, not overhead lines. The Hastings Omnibus Company had both motor buses and horse-drawn buses running in July 1905, but by the end of the year most of the buses had been withdrawn. In June 1906 the company was wound up and most its vehicles were sold to the London and Westminster Omnibus Company, which ran intermittent services around the town until it went bust itself in 1907.

1905 Nov 8 – The first meeting of the Unemployed Distress Committee appointed under the Unemployed Workmen’s Act 1905 was held in the Council Chamber. A sub-committee was set up to enquire into the condition of labour and make a register of the borough’s unemployed. On 4 December the UDC was told there were 904 registered unemployed, 215 of them in Ore and 145 in the Old Town. But the unemployed had to fill in a complicated form to be on the register, which some were known to refuse to do.

1905 Nov 26 – The worst storm since 1877 struck the town. The town centre and George Street were flooded and much damage was done to the seafront and many buildings around the town. Boats rowed round the Memorial.

1905 Nov 30 – The workhouse guardians agreed to stop giving the inmates the free pint of beer they had been given every Christmas. This was a result of the temperance movement. In early December the number of workhouse inmates was 369 (334 in 1904), plus 190 vagrants (119 in 1904).

1906 Jan 8 – The new Halton Boys School opened, with room for 104 boys.

1906 Jan 15 – In the general election, where the Conservative government was swept aside by a landslide Liberal vote, Hastings was one of only a handful of seats in the country which the Tories took from the Liberals. The sitting Liberal MP Freeman Freeman-Thomas lost by 413 votes. The winner was millionaire Harvey Du Cros, the Dublin-born founder of the Dunlop tyre business, making his fortune from a near-monopoly of the car tyre trade. His Hastings house was 106 Marina. It was believed that he had won because of false promises he had made to working people of more work and prosperity, at a time of widespread poverty. A letter in the Hastings Mail said ‘the poor have never before been duped in such a fashion’. On 21 January the Reverend John Bailey said in a service: ‘I knew there were some fools in Hastings, but I was unaware that they were so numerous. … Poor, deluded, benighted, infatuated and demented Hastings.’ It is believed that this election of the rich by the poor was the spark for Robert Tressell to start writing his highly influential working class novel The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists.

1906 Feb 7 – A new political goup, the Hastings and St Leonards Democratic Association, was set up at a crowded public meeting in Ore. Its committee included Radical Socialists, and members of the Independent Labour Party and the national Democratic League. The Liberal-supporting Mail commented: ‘The movement for the organisation of the democratic forces of Hastings and St Leonards has made a decided advance this week. … There is every prospect of a most successful future.’

1906 April 4 – Death of Thomas Brandon Brett, aged 89, the famed local historian and newspaper owner. He was born in George Street in May 1816. His father was a smith. Thomas had several jobs while young. In 1855 he launched, wrote and edited the St Leonards and Hastings Gazette, which he produced weekly until c1896.

1906 April 9 – The first section of the new tram line from the Bopeep Hotel to Bexhill opened to the public, just in time for forthcoming Easter. The service was based in the Bulverhythe Depot, on Bexhill Road 200 yards of Filsham Road. The depot survives today as a mineral water store. The line was extended to Cooden Beach on 28 July 1906.

1906 April 21 – Death of William Ransom, father of the local press. He died at his residence at 13 Githa Road, Clive Vale. He was the founder and first editor of the Hastings and St Leonards News, first published on 5 May 1848, the first long-living Hastings newspaper, and the model of those to come. Aged 83. He was helped by his father William (who died November 1855) and then his uncle John until the selling of the News in 1870. William remained editor until 1884. After that he contributed much material to the News and the Mail. He was a strong Liberal, greatly helping the local party.

1906 April 26 – The 6,700 ton steamship SS Lugano caught fire off Hastings. The blaze in the forward cargo hold was very serious, and the vessel was run ashore just to the east of the harbour where tugs and other craft could play hoses on it. The SS Lugano was a tramp on charter to the German Lloyd Steamship Company, and was on voyage to Hamburg with a full cargo. The fire lasted three days, and large crowds gathered on the seafront to watch the attempts to bring the spectacular blaze under control. The ship survived and was towed away on 5 May by three tugs.

1906 May 23 – The laying of the foundation stone of the new Church Hall in Croft Road, close to St Clements Church, was carried out by the Archdeacon of Lewes. The hall was then in the course of construction.

1906 July – The strong anti-Tory movement in the town began to break up in a confusing manner, following the election of Mr Walter Jones, a plumber, to be a candidate for Hollington and Silverhill in the autumn local elections. He was a candidate for the Trades and Labour Council. But the liberal Democratic League was not happy with his selection, while socialists wanted a more radical anti-capitalist movement in the town. By October the various anti-Tory parties had fallen out with each other.

1906 July 28 – The London Road and Cooden tramway extensions opened. The London Road extension ran the full length of the road, from Silverhill to Grand Parade. The Cooden extension was on the Bopeep-Bexhill line, which was separate from the Hastings and St Leonards lines, and it ran from Bexhill to Cooden Beach. But the line was still being laid along the Hastings and St Leonards seafront, as it had to be ‘Dolter’ powered, ie, by a difficult system of studs laid in the roadway (overhead lines and poles were seen as unattractive). A public opinion poll on 28 July found a majority of people were in favour of having trams running on Sundays, and this was approved by the Council on 3 August.

1906 Aug 16-17 – Lord John Sanger’s Royal Hippodrome and Menagerie came to the Central Cricket Ground. The circus was visited by large crowds.

1906 Sept 20 – A new Church of England chapel was opened at the Hastings Workhouse. All inmates were expected to attend, with the threat of having their diet reduced to bread and water if they did not.

1906 Oct 12 – The first meeting took place of the new Hastings branch of the Marxist-oriented Social Democratic Federation. It had been set up in response to the Tory winning of the Hastings seat in the January 1906 general election. By late 1906 there were socialist and Labour groups all over the town, with the SDF the most active. Author Robert Tressell supported the Hastings SDF, which generated much political activity over the coming years, mostly inspired by its leader, Alf Cobb, a local street trader.

1906 Oct 15 – The Clive Vale and Silverhill police stations opened. The Clive Vale station was on the corner of Clive Avenue and Mount Road, next to the fire station.

1906 Late Oct – The Grand Hotel, at Verulam Place opposite Hastings Pier, closed because of financial problems. This was followed in November by an extensive sale of all the furniture. This was bought in one lot for £2,000 by Mr John J Butler, of Butler’s Emporium in George Street, paying the £2,000 in cash to the auctioneer! He claimed he went to the auction with no hard plans to buy it, and happened to have the money in his pocket. By the end of the following day he had disposed of his suspicious bargain to a Mr Cavie, of Milward Crescent, an old acquaintance. Butler said he bumped into Cavie in the street soon after the auction, told him about it and sold it almost on the spot. 

1906 Nov 1 – Municipal elections took place in three wards. In Silverhill and Hollington, the Labour candidate Walter Jones withdrew, after a summer of much activity, so Liberal councillor James Pelham held the seat, by 468 to 335 for the Independent Conservative Mr S Stevens. The 67% turnout in the three wards was described by the Mail as ‘one of the most apathetic elections in Hastings on record’.

1906 Nov 26 – There were more by-elections in four wards, and Walter Jones stood as a candidate for the Trades and Labour Council, and was effectively the first Labour Party candidate at a Hastings election, although he was actually representing the Liberal wing of the complicated Hastings politics. But he lost, and the Tories won all seats. Jones’s vote may have been lost by the lack of support from the socialists. Over the past few months a big split had developed between the Trades Council (just focusing on trade unionists) and the Social Democratic Federation, which had few trade unionists as members. The Hastings SDF had been become a very active and vocal body, under the leadership of Alf Cobb, and supported by Robert Tressell.

1907 – Small steam railcars were introduced on the Hastings-Ashford railway line, allowing the opening of small halts at Snailham (which closed in 1957), Doleham and Three Oaks.

1907 Jan 12 – The tram service started along the seafront. Twenty cars were being adapted for the Dolter underground system. About forty thousand passengers used the seafront trams in the first week. The system was by no means perfect yet – the lights had been constantly going out and the flashes as the cars passed over the studs had been rather startling. The cars had been frequently stuck on dead studs and had to be shifted to live by crowbars. There were so many problems with the system that in March 1914 it was abandoned and trams using the seafront were equipped with Tilling-Stevens petrol-electric generator sets that provided electricity for the tram motors.

1907 Jan 13Lloyds News exposed a ‘coal ring’ in operation in Hastings, which resulted in coal costing about 10% more per ton in Hastings than in Bexhill or Brighton.

1907 Jan 14 – The Hastings Weekly Mail said that on this and the following days there were the first-ever organised processions of unemployed people in the history of Hastings – ‘a human picture sorrowful in the extreme’. Several hundred people marched each day round different parts of the town collecting money from passers-by. This was a time of great unemployment and poverty in the town. On 24 January over 270 men besieged the Hastings Workhouse in Frederick Road where a meeting of the board of guardians was taking place. A deputation was heard. The processions and other events ended about three weeks later when prospects for the future looked better, but they resumed at the end of November when conditions were even worse.

1907 Feb 4 – A large grocery business at 257 London Road was totally destroyed by fire. It was occupied by George Ockendon.

1907 Feb 27 – A women’s conference and mass meeting at the Public Hall, Robertson Street, were organised by the Home Counties Union of Women’s Liberal Associations and the Hastings Women’s Liberal Association, with a speech by Mr Ackland MP.

1907 April 16 – The Hastings Labour Party was formed at a meeting in a café at 28 Havelock Road. Leading members of the Marx-oriented Social Democratic Federation supported and joined in the setting up of the party. The Mail said that since February 1906 three parties had been created in the town. ‘First we had the National Democratic Federation, which began well but ended feebly; then there was and, we suppose, remains, the SDF, the creation of a company of young enthusiasts who found the milk of the Democratic Federation somewhat watery. … The latest recruits to the ranks of labour or socialist organisations breathed existence [on the 16th] in the shape of a branch of the Independent Labour Party, and which most of us understand has been created because the SDF milk was too strong for the liking of some of the social ‘upheavers’.’ The party’s first candidates to stand in a Hastings Council election, in two wards on 1 November 1907, were unsuccessful.

1907 Sept – The last paddle steamer to be owned in Hastings and run from Hastings Pier, the Cynthia, was sold to an Irish company, bringing to an end 23 years of locally-owned steamers. However, steamers continued visiting the pier.

1907 Nov 2 – In the first-ever Hastings Council elections where official Labour candidates took part, the two Labour men (one of them Walter Jones) failed to win. For many weeks before the elections the SDF had held meetings at many places around the town, arouisng a lot of interest, but not necessarily support.

1907 Nov 30 – Several processions of the unemployed took place on this day and in early December.

1908 Jan 4 – The Mail said: ‘The Winkle Club has not been in existence more than two years and yet already has a membership numbering 100. The club was originally formed with the idea of fishermen holding a jovial New Years Eve together, but with its growth a larger object is to provide a meal for some 300 or 400 children. Mr John Hart is at present the secretary and John Webb the treasurer. A hundred hungry men were served with dinner in the Harbour Shed, decorated with bunting, on Tuesday (31 Dec), while an estimated 750 children were given a good square meal dinner on Wednesday.’

1908 Jan 16 – The Hastings magistrates appointed their first-ever probation officer, implementing the Probation of Offenders Act 1907.

1908 Feb 3 – For the first time, Hastings schools started giving out free breakfasts to all children in need, under the Education (Provision of Meals) Act 1906. ‘Necessitous’ children were being given breakfast at 8am every day of the school week, and this was due to continue until 3 April 1908, starting again on 2 November. Centres had been established at Ore, Halton, Old Town, Silverhill and Hollington. Canteens had been established at Sandown mission room, the Fishermen’s Institute, Halton parish room and Silverdale mission hall. An ‘exhaustive record’ had to be kept at every school of the numbers of meals, and the number given to each child, and the name, address, income and occupation of the parents, and the dates when meals were given to their children. Forms with this data had to be returned weekly to the Education Committee. Head teachers gave tickets to eligible children at the end of the previous day.

1908 Feb 25 – A lively and hostile suffragette meeting took place in Hastings in the run-up to the Parliamentary by-election on 3 March. The suffragettes were the leading national figure Miss Christabel Pankhurst (daughter of Emmeline), Mrs Drummond and Mrs Martel. Their inaugural meeting was at 7.30 on the 25th in Wellington Square. ‘Unparalleled scenes occurred.’ Hundreds of small boys and youths, together with uniformed and plain clothed police, awaited them when they drove up in a cab, in the rain. There was a large crowd all around the square. When Miss Pankhurst, the third speaker, stepped onto the speech box the crowd surged forward and she was dragged off. A near-riot then broke out and the police had to fight a pathway through the mob to enable the speakers to take refuge in the nearby Castle Hotel. There were two more suffragette meetings in following days. Emmeline Pankhurst, leader of the national movement, gave two speeches at the Royal Concert Hall, Warrior Gardens, on 26 March 1908. She made a powerful speech for equality between the sexes. In the first meeting, in the afternoon, men were denied access, but were admitted to the evening meeting, with many young males at the back of the hall out of sympathy with suffragette demands.

1908 March 3 – In the by-election, Arthur Du Cros succeeded his father as Hastings MP. He had a heavy majority of 1,018 due to the reduced Liberal poll. The vote was: Du Cros, Conservative, 4,495; Robert Vernon Harcourt, Liberal, 3,477. There was no Labour candidate. At the previous election, in January 1906, Harvey Du Cros’s majority was 413 (4,348 to 3,935); it was higher this time largely because of a lower Liberal vote. It had been a snap election, with Harvey only announcing his resignation on 23 February, claiming poor health, although sceptics said he had always only been keeping the seat warm for his son.

1908 March 26 – The leading suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst gave two speeches at the Royal Concert Hall, Warrior Gardens. Her daughter Christabel had tried to give an open-air speech in Wellington Square on 25 February, but a riot had broken out.

1908 May 1 – At a time of great national demand for allotments, Hastings Council appointed a Small Holdings and Allotments Committee. This followed the passing of the Small Holdings and Allotments Act 1907 (revised 1908), which came into force on 1 January 1908 and required local authorities to provide them if demanded, and it gave them the legal power to compulsorily purchase suitable land. There were already many allotments in the town on privately-owned land, and in December 1908, the Hastings Smallholdings and Allotments Co-operative Society was formed, to take advantage of the beneficial new law. On 12 March 1909 the Council held a special meeting to discuss the committee’s report, recommending the purchase of 86-acre Little Ridge Farm, on the Ridge, where the Conquest Hospital is today. Seventy seven acres would be small holdings and the remainder for allotments. But this was rejected, despite recommendations for it from the Board of Agriculture.

1908 June 20 – A subterranean passage or tunnel had been discovered, 71 feet in length, in a garden at 39 St Marys Terrace, West Hill, owing to the removal of a water tank. It extended towards Plynlimmon Road, but did not appear to have formed part of St Clements Caves.

1908 June 26 – Local builders Eldridge & Cruttenden started building the Convent of Our Lady on a large plot at the top of Filsham Road. The nuns took possession on 18 June 1909. From October 1914 to 1917 the Red Cross took some of the rooms for a hospital for wounded soldiers. The Roman Catholic convent and school closed on 10 July 1992, and much of it was demolished and replaced by housing. Actress Julie Christie attended the school.

1908 July 2 – The weekly newspaper Hastings Advertiser was relaunched as the Hastings Pictorial Advertiser, containing large numbers of photographs, and continuing doing so until it closed in March 1918. It was owned by Hastings Observer publisher FJ Parsons Ltd.

1908 Mid July – There was a week’s open air campaign in Hastings by the Suffragettes. Using the Women’s Suffrage Van, it began on Tuesday 14th, and the two orators were the Australian Miss Muriel Matters and Miss Eustace Smith. Miss matters had moved to Hastings from Adelaide in 1905. A meeting was held at Wellington Square on the evening of the 15 July, with no opposition offered, and an open air meeting at the Fishmarket on Thursday. The last meeting was on the 20th in Wellington Square, in front of several hundred people. When the meeting started becoming lively, the police brought it to a halt. Also in 1908 Miss Matters became the first woman to ever speak in the House of Commons after chaining herself to the grille of the Ladies Gallery. In 1924 she unsuccessfully stood in the general election as the Labour candidate for Hastings. She remained in hastings until her death in 1969, aged 92.

1908 July 23 – The leading socialist Alf Cobb was fined 2s 6d at Hastings magistrates court for causing an obstruction in the streets at a meeting of street hawkers he had organised in South Terrace on 10 July. Hastings Council was waging a campaign against hawkers (Cobb was one) because they were taking trade from shopkeepers, and several had been prosecuted recently.

1908 Aug 2 – Normanhurst Court, Lord Brassey’s large mansion on a big estate north of Catsfield, was seriously damaged by fire. Lord Brassey’s 60 servants had been trained to serve as firemen if required, and they manned their 60 horsepower steamer, obtaining their water supply from a large reservoir near the covered tennis court. The Hastings, Bexhill and Battle fire brigades were summoned.

1908 Aug 7 – A group of 40 hunger marchers reached Hastings from Bexhill, but the police stopped them proceeding along the seafront. Instead they were forced to go up Boscobel Road, where they stopped for a frugal meal of bread and cheese.

1908 Sept 24 – Old age pensions came into being for the deserving poor. In the following days there was a great demand for application forms, with a large number of them distributed at local Post Offices. 

1908 Oct 10 – A new fire station opened in Shepherd Street.

1908 Oct 16 – The Social Democratic Party staged a week’s events in the streets of Hastings and St Leonards in the run up to the Council meeting on Friday 16 October, protesting about the high unemployment. The chief speaker was Tom Kennedy, who addressed a meeting of the unemployed in Wellington Square in conjunction with Mr Cobb on Saturday afternoon 10th. Photos of that meeting show Robert Tressell addressing the crowd. A large audience at the Royal Concert Hall, Warrior Gardens, on 2 December heard the famous SDF founder Henry Hyndman give an address on ‘Socialism and Current Politics’ at a meeting organised by the SDF. The socialists at the end sang the Red Flag in opposition to the National Anthem. 

1908 Oct 21 – The Ore Cattle Market opened, next to the Kings Head pub on the Rye Road.

1908 Dec 5 – An opening ceremony took place at the Buchanan Hospital, London Road, for the ‘new wing’, in a large marquee in the grounds.

1908 Dec 16 – The first Hastings Marathon Race was held, and was a great success. The 25 mile race started at the Central Cricket Ground and the 51 runners went via Battle and Sidley, returning along the seafront. Large crowds witnessed the start, with Arthur Du Cros MP firing a pistol. The runners were accompanied by doctors with cars, attendants on cycles and cars containing food and refreshments, including Oxo, who sponsored the event. A silver cup was presented to the winner, Mt WT Clarke, of the Sefton Harriers, who took  two hours and 37 mintes.

1908 Dec 29 – What was thought to be the heaviest snowstorm since 1860 took place, lasting 15 hours. On the same day, a new soup kitchen opened for the first time, in the basement of the Priory Street Institute. It had been started by some ladies and gentlemen, with the help of the Robertson Street Congregational Church, which owned the Institute.

1908 Dec 31 – The Observer said: ‘Quite a shadow of its former self was the New Year dinner of the Old Town Winkle Club on Thursday [31st] evening. Owing to bad times and lack of funds, the festive gathering merely sat down to an ordinary cold collation at the Prince Albert [pub, Rock-a-Nore Road], instead of assembling for a sumptuous banquet on a gigantic scale in the gaily-decorated Harbour Shed, as heretofore. The function, however, was a very merry and jovial one.’ On New Years Day several hundred children from the east end were fed a repast.

1908 Late – Robert Tressell probably began finishing his novel The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists in late 1908. The 250,000 word manuscript was probably completed by the spring of 1910, but he could find no publisher, so he decided to emigrate to Canada. In late 1910 he went to Liverpool to earn money to pay for the trip, but he was struck down by tuberculosis, and he died in Liverpool hospital on 3 February 1911. His daughter Kathleen managed to get the book published on 23 April 1914.

1909 Jan – The first Hastings branch of the new Boy Scouts was formed.

1909 Jan 1 – The Hastings Co-operative Society bakery started operations at 155 Queens Road. The premises, which some time before were occupied by a baker, were already fitted up with an oven and other plant necessary for the making of bread. By January 8 the daily bake had increased to about 200 and was still increasing.

1909 Jan 4 – One the town’s biggest-ever fires took place in the fiver-storey block of buildings occupied by Messrs Holdoway and Tapner, upholsterers, and Messrs Simmonds and Co, cabinet makers, builders and contractors, in Waterworks Road. The fire took eight hours to control and caused £7,000 of damage. The blaze was said to be the biggest since the Jenkins fire 17 years before, though some said the Mastins fire in 1904 was bigger.

1909 Feb 11 – Fifty unemployed Ore men held a demonstration outside the workhouse in Frederick Road, and about six of them went inside, but the guardians told them that nothing could be done to help them.

1909 Feb 4 – The Socialists fielded their first-ever candidate in a Hastings municipal or parliamentary election. This was the St Clements and Halton ward by-election, following the death of Tory councillor Richard Idenden. The Conservative candidate, Mr AG Ginner, won with 285 votes; Liberal Benjamen Shoesmith had 272; and Socialist Mr EP Edwards, came third with 86 votes. The Mail said: ‘The election, as indicated by the small poll, was a very quiet affair, the bad weather no doubt accounting for a great many of the absentees. … The election campaign has cause but little interest in the ward.’

1909 March 13 – In a big public meeting, the Hastings and St Leonards Women’s Suffrage Society (formed in 1883) affiliated itself to the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies. The well-attended event took place ‘in a high state of excitement’ at the Royal Concert Hall, Warrior Gardens, with Dr Flora Murray of the National Union as the main speaker.

1909 March 17 – Hastings MP Arthur Du Cros organised a significant and successful experiment in the movement of troops. He, along with the Automobile Association, conveyed a thousand-strong battalion of armed and equipped Guards from London to Hastings in over 400 vehicles, in 3-4 hours. This was the first-ever large-scale mechanical transport of troops by anything other than trains, proving the potential of cars. War minister Mr Haldane had told the House of Commons on 4 March that Hastings had been chosen for the important exercise because ‘the only successful invasion of this country has taken place at Hastings’. Du Cros had major investments in the motor business, from which he made his fortune. He entertained the officers at the Queens Hotel. The spectacular event brought international publicity to Hastings, the streets were thronged and many buildings were decorated.

1909 April 1 – The ‘American Syndicate’, also known as the Rinkeries, took out a lease on St Leonards Pier and carried out big improvements. It reopened on 23 May 1909 as the ‘American Palace Pier’ (but usually just called the ‘Palace Pier’). The whole pier was painted and decorated, a new restaurant was built on the south side of the pavilion and six ornamental kiosks were erected, each accommodating three shops. About 4,000 lamps were fixed all over the pier, making it a big attraction in the evenings. In July that year a new pavilion was built as a roller skating rink at the seaward end of the pier. But in the spring of 1911 the Rinkeries suddenly surrendered its lease, which was then taken over by a small group of local people, who ran the pier until 1917.

1909 April 18 – A woman was killed in jumping from a moving tramcar, the first tramway death. Miss Annie Eliza Marchant, living at 22 Salisbury Road, Bohemia, struck her head on the stone curbing, by Grosvenor Gardens. She had jumped off the car while it was coming to a halt. She was a domestic servant at 141 Marina.

1909 Aug 30 – Ore Cemetery, in Winchelsea Road, closed because it was full, was in very poor condition and did not have funding for maintenance.

1909 Dec 31 – A new act of Parliament required the medical inspection of schools, and the first such inspection took place in 1909. Its report said that, of the 8,610 children in the borough’s 23 schools, 1,881 (about 22%) had been examined. It found that 330 of these were below normal nutrition, and 12 showed signs of starvation. Over half had defective teeth, 765 had enlarged tonsils, 29% had adenoids, and one in six had nervous instability. Of 306 children whose eyesight was inspected, 44% were ‘in urgent need of spectacles’. Schools had started giving children free breakfasts in February 1908, and Hastings Council’s inspecting officer said that this had been a great success. In many cases children who had seemed to be mentally defective had ‘become happy, intelligent beings’. Free breakfasts were necessary because in Hastings there was ‘no staple industry for the employment of male labour, and also the very large number of unemployed.’

1910 Jan 15 – The general election polling day resulted in a Tory victory: Arthur du Cros 4,634; Liberal Ronald Tweedy-Smith 3,833. The majority was 801, a reduction of 217 from the by-election of 2008. There was no Labour or SDP candidate. 

1910 Feb 1 – The town’s first Labour Exchange opened, at 37 Havelock Road. On the first day, about 170 unemployed people signed on, mostly men in the building trade. It was part of a new Board of Trade scheme.

1910 April 26 – The new fishing boat EVG, built at Hastings, was launched by Mrs Arthur du Cros at Rock-a-Nore. A thousand people watched the grand ceremony, the first of its kind since the launch of the Lady Brassey in June 1886. The skipper was ‘Woolly’ Tassell, who said the initials stood for Edward, Victor, Grace.

 1910 May 7 – The Hastings Weekly Mail reported that there was ‘a very decided wave of emigration passing over the community’. Many young men were going to Canada and some to Australia, but very few to South Africa or New Zealand.

1910 May 31 – Death at Rock House, Exmouth Place, of Dr Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman ever to graduate in medicine (in 1849) and the first woman to be placed on the British Medical Register. She moved into Rock House in May 1879. She became well-known locally, but never loved Hastings, saying in 1885: ‘In Hastings my work has hitherto been discouragingly checked by the coldness of the people – I suppose because I don’t go to their hypocritical churches and chapels.’ She was buried near Glasgow.

1910 Summer – The first significant new building to go up on Hastings Pier since it was built in 1872 was the American Bowling Alley, erected in the summer of 1910 roughly a third of the way along the pier. It was used as a cinema from November 1912 to December 1913, and then had a variety of uses. It was integrated in the major development all over the pier in the 1930s, but its roof, with a dome in the middle of it, survived until being destroyed in the 2010 fire. A large joywheel roundabout was put up next to the seafront promenade, opening on 12 November 1910. It was removed in the autumn of 1914. A shooting gallery, with ‘animated pictures’ (films) on show and amusement machines, was built near the pier’s pavilion in the winter of 1910-11.

1910 Oct 29 – The radical national magazine Justice, weekly journal of the Marixst-oriented Social Democratic Party, published a story saying Hastings councillor and caterer George Cox was selling butter, when actually it was margarine. Despite this being true, he successfully sued editor Henry Quelch for libel in November 1911, and the £200 damages bankrupted Quelch.

1910 Nov – The Hippodrome music hall in Pelham Place, built 1899, became the Cinema de Luxe. Today it is the De Luxe Leisure Centre.

1911 July 3 – It is believed that this is the first day on which a flying machine was seen over Hastings.

1911 Late Oct – Ben Tillett, leader of the London Dock Strike, addressed an open-air meeting in Wellington Square organised by the Social Democratic Party in the run-up to the local elections.

1912 Oct 17 – The fishing sailing lugger Enterprise RX 278 was launched, after being built on Hastings beach for Tom and Jack Adams. She is now the main exhibit in the Fishermen’s Museum in Rock-a-Nore Road.

1913 March 22 – The gales which hit the town were said to be the worst in 30 years. There had also been severe storms and flooding on 22 October 1911 and 16 December 1910.

1913 April 15 – Three weeks after Hastings MP Arthur Du Cros’ moved out of his former residence Levetleigh on the corner of Dane Road and Brittany Road, the large mansion was almost completely destroyed in a fire started by militant London suffragette Kitty Marion. His father Harvey had moved in there in early 1906, soon after his election as MP.

1913 July 24 – The Public Hall Cinema opened; prior to that, it was the multi-purpose Public Hall, between Robertson Street and Havelock Road. In 1930 it was renamed the Plaza, and then from 1948 the Orion (pronounced Oh-ryon). On 30 September 1940 it was hit by a bomb, killing 14 people.

1913 Late Sept – The new All Saints School in Harold Road (now Dudley Infants) was dedicated by the Bishop of Lewes and opened. Its foundation stone was laid on 6 March 1913.

1913 Nov 5 – Opening of the town’s first purpose-built cinema, the Kinema Palace, in Norman Road, with seats for 650 people (it was enlarged and renamed the Curzon in 1952). On 27 November the new 700-seat Silverhill Picture House opened on the corner of London Road and Beaufort Road (later renamed the Roxy).

1914 April – A new motorbus service started, between the station and the Old Town. It was owned by Skinners.

1914 April 21 – The first trip of a motorised Hastings fishing vessel took place. The 21-feet long Boy Leslie had had a 7hp petrol-paraffin engine installed and had demonstrated that it worked. This showed that boats could go to sea in calm weather, greatly increasing their earning potential. Within months, most Hastings boats had had similar engines installed. The last Hastings boat to be built without an engine was the Mayflower RX 289, launched in 1913. The first boat to be built with an engine installed was the Boy Jack RX 320, which started work in May 1918.

1914 June 13 – Intrepid young aviator Frank Goodden gave a sensational exhibition of flying at Fairlight. Large crowds of people gathered to watch Mr Goodden spend half an hour circling and looping the loop in very strong winds in a Morane monoplane.

1914 July 15 – In a major Freemason event, two important ceremonies took place, led by the Duke of Richmond and Gordon, a leading mason. First, 180 masons watched as he laid the foundation stone of the Royal East Sussex Hospital, Cambridge Road. After a large lunch in the Queens Hotel, about 80 masons then went to the new Masonic Hall in East Ascent. The hall had been built by James Burton, a Freemason, c1829 as the St Leonards Assembly Rooms until bought by the Hastings and St Leonards Masonic Hall Co Ltd in late 1913. The hall had always been a Freemason social centre, but it had become run down and ‘dilapidated’. As the local masons had been hoping to acquire a ‘Masonic Temple’ for many years, they formed the company and spent £2,700 buying and improving the Assembly Rooms. It had a large hall, a dining hall, and a music room with a new floor for dancing. Only Freemasons were allowed to buy company shares. The Freemasons are still an influential (and semi-secret) lobbying organisation, and their building is still the Hastings-area masonic headquarters. Many lodges meet in the large, decorated lower ground floor hall.

1914 Sept – The 220 feet of Hastings Pier nearest the promenade were sold by the Pier Company to Hastings Council, just as the First World War broke out. Work began immediately on creating the ‘parade extension’ by widening that part of the pier to 220 feet. The tollgates and the four-year old joywheel were removed that autumn. On 19 April 1916 the official opening ceremony of the new extension took place in and around the new bandstand, which had just been finished. Over the following four months the two curved shelters (known as the ‘bandstand shelters’) were put up, along with a well-designed building which formed the Pier Company’s frontage onto the Council’s parade extension. By late summer all the new parade extension and pier frontage were in operation.

1915 Jan – The Picture Palace cinema in Wellington Place was severely damaged in a fire.

1916 March 28 – The windmill at Baldslow was badly damaged in a gale, with its sweeps broken beyond repair. It would have cost £200 and taken six months to repair.

1916 July 1 – The Battle of the Somme started on this day, with 60,000 casualties in the first 24 hours, 20,000 of whom died. It was the single worst day in the history of the British Army. The battle was filmed by Hastings photographer Geoffrey Malins, and his hour-long movie, The Battle of the Somme, was the most-watched film of the time. He was born Arthur Herbert Malins in Russell Street on 18 November 1886, the son of a Hastings hairdresser. He trained as a photographer and from 1908 ran a studio at 194 Queens Road, roughly where WH Smith is today. Around 1910 he moved to London and by 1914 was working as a newsreel cameraman. He and Mr JB McDowell were the two cameramen nominated to work alongside British forces, and their film of the Somme has some of the most iconic imagaes of the First World War.

1916 Nov – The Old Town Junior Club for boys was started by the new All Saints rector, the Reverend EA Penson. The club was based on the two floors of a former school hall in Tackleway (where number 18 is today) and initially suffered from vandalism and bad influences. But in the early 1920s it became a popular centre for athletics, football, gymnastics, boxing and other sports. Girls became eligible to join the club in the 1970s. The hall became dilapidated in the 1980s and had to be closed. In 1997 the Magdalen & Lasher charity gave the club use of a large field in Barley Lane, opposite Shearbarn Holiday Park, where the club laid out two football pitches and erected changing rooms.

1917 July 15 – A great fire destroyed the pavilion at the seaward end of Hastings Pier. The blaze was thought to have been caused by one of the Canadian soldiers stationed in the town discarding a cigarette. Much of the pier was damaged and it took until 1922 until a replacement pavilion was built.

1917 August – The St Leonards Pier was bought by Mr John Henry Gardner, the owner of a Welsh coal-mining business.

1917 Nov 24 – The ownership of much of eastern Fairlight was changed when most of the Lucas-Shadwell family’s Fairlight Hall Estate was auctioned at the Castle Hotel, Hastings. This followed the death of William Lucas-Shadwell (1852-1915), Conservative MP for Hastings 1895-1900, the only son of William Drew Lucas-Shadwell who had built Fairlight Hall in 1850-51. A total of 3,680 acres was sold, covering an area from Fairlight Church along the coast to Rye Harbour, taking in most of Pett as far north as the Pannel Sewer.

1918 – Beaulieu House on the Ridge was taken over and turned into Hydneye House boys’ preparatory school. This became one of the country’s best-known such schools, until closing in 1969. In 1974 the beautiful large house was demolished and replaced by Maplehurst School.

1918 – King George V came to inspect the Royal Air Force Brigade, in which Prince Albert (later George VI) was a captain.

1918 Early Nov – Death of the hermit John Hancox, the former London businessman who lived in the cave in Ecclesbourne Glen from the mid-1890s until he died.

1918 Dec 14 – In the general election, Laurance Lyon won Hastings as the Liberal/Conservative Coalition candidate, beating Labour’s candidate, London trade union secretary Joseph Butler, by 11,210 to 3,556. Lyon, a Conservative, was declared bankrupt in late 1920, owing £21,400. He moved to France and resigned as MP in April 1921. The by-election on 4 May was won by Tory (and Coalition supporter) Lord Eustace Percy. Labour came second, Liberals third. The Conservatives won all forthcoming general elections until Michael Foster won for Labour in 1997.

 1919 April 15 – A 267-feet long German submarine, the U-118, was swept ashore at Harold Place while under tow to France. The local Coastguards took control of the vessel, and two officers who spent some time below decks died several months later as a result of inhaling noxious gas from rotting food in water inside. The U-118 had a 150mm gun, four forward torpedo tubes and two mine chutes at the stern (for mine-laying). Built in Hamburg, the U 118 was launched in February 1918 and sank two British ships. It was found to be impossible to remove the vessel, so it was dismantled in the autumn of 1919. Some of the keel remained under the beach until June 1937, when Hastings Council removed what had been uncovered by the tide (but is some still there?).

1919 July – The passing of the 1919 Housing and Town Planning Act made local authorities responsible for supplying housing to people in need. Hastings Council were told in November 1919 that there were roughly 12,000 houses in the borough, and about another 500 were required to meet housing needs. It was decided to consider building in Barley Lane and the field adjoining All Saints Rectory,

1919 July 28 – A First World War army tank was presented to Hastings Council and placed in Wellington Square.

1919 Nov – The first woman councillor in Hastings was elected.

1919 Late – The fishing boat Edward and Mary RX 74 was built in a shed on the beach. She was probably the first Hastings boat to be built with an engine installed, and today she stands next to the Fishermen’s Museum.

1920 – Tennis courts were laid out in Alexandra Park. White Rock Pleasure Grounds were completed. Beach huts replaced bathing machines. A motorboat became a summer attraction on the pier.

1920 Jan 27 – The large Havenhurst flour mill in Bexhill Road (where Stamco was later located) was completely gutted by fire.

1920 August – Hastings Council decided to acquire about 29 acres of land on which to build council houses: 72 houses at Barley Lane, 18 alongside All Saints Rectory, 62 beside Eversley Road, Silverhill and 84 off Old Church Road, Hollington. In mid-1921 the first houses became available, with All Saints Crescent finished in April 1922, and Barley Lane/Boyne Road/Gurth Road completed in July 1922. All these houses were built to a high standard. Work began on several other sites in the following years, and by October 1926 the Council had built 334 houses and 44 flats.

1921-24 – The height of the dam of the Spoon reservoir in Ecclesbourne Glen was raised, and the reservoir’s inside slope was improved, doubling its capacity to 12 million gallons. To do this, an additional two acres of land was needed, to add to the existing area of just over three acres, so the Council in November 1924 bought all that land from Edith Sayer-Milward, ending its lease. 

1921 Jan 9 – A second German submarine was washed up on Hastings beaches, this time at Bulverhythe. It was the 181-feet long UB-131, which broke loose from a tug in a gale. It was later sold and broken up. The UB-131 was one of 95 submarines in the UB III class: coastal torpedo attack vessels, 181 feet long, with 34 crew, an 88mm deck gun and five torpedo tubes, each with two torpedoes. It was launched in June 1918, but had no successes in combat.

1921 March 20 – The trams’ new overhead power line along the seafront was switched on. Until March 1914 the trams had been using electric studs in the road, but this was unreliable, so petrol-electric motors were then installed, but these were also a failure. The Hastings Tramways Act 1920 had given the tram company the legal power to set up poles on the seafront.

1921 March 30 – About 400 acres of farmland in and around Fairlight Cove was auctioned at the Castle Hotel. This included Waites Farm of 226 acres, Wakehams Farm 40 acres and Lower Stonelink Farm 34 acres. It is believed that the sale of Waites Farm started the development of Fairlight Cove as a housing area.

1921 mid – On Hastings Pier, a wooden floor was laid on the site of the burnt-down pavilion, to be used in fine weather. That winter, a simple steel-framed sheltering pavilion was put over the top of the new floor, and the new building opened in July 1922. It quickly became clear that this frail and unattractive barn-like structure should have been built as a weather-proof replacement of the 1872 pavilion destroyed by fire in 1917. The 1922 structure was to form the basis of the pier’s main pavilion (from around 1960 often known as the ‘ballroom’) until destroyed in a major fire in 2010.

1921 Summer – The town’s first post-war council houses started becoming available at Barley Lane/Boyne Road and All Saints Crescent. This summer Hastings Council also bought seven acres at Eversley Road, Silverhill, and nine acres at Old Church Road, Hollington.

1921 Aug 20 – Hastings Fire Brigade took delivery of its first motorised fire engine, a 60hp Leyland, equipped with a 65-feet escape ladder and a turbine pump, and running on solid tyres.

1922 March 26 – The War Memorial in Alexandra Park (still there) was unveiled by the Earl of Cavan. It was designed by Margaret Winser.

1922 Sept – The new northern half of St Helens Road, from the water pumping station to Sedlescombe Road North, was opened by the mayor.

1922 Nov 15 – The existing Hastings MP Lord Eustace Percy, who had won the 1921 Hastings by-election, won the general election for the Tories. The party held the seat for the next 75 years.

1923 Feb – Hunger marchers arrived in Hastings from Eastbourne. They stayed in the workhouse and then went to Rye.

1923 May – The new Royal East Sussex Hospital, Cambridge Road, came into use. It was officially opened by Princess Alice on 22 October. Demolition then began of the East Sussex Hospital opposite the pier, to become the site of the White Rock Theatre which opened in April 1927.

1923 – In mid-1923 an expert town planner, Dr Thomas Adams, was appointed by Hastings Council to draw up a development plan to help turn Hastings into the ‘City Beautiful’. His interim proposals of 1924 and 1926, involving many large-scale schemes, found overall favour, and either coincided with, or caused, the appointment of Sidney Little as Borough Engineer in July 1926 (cf). In the following years, Little carried out some of Adams’s proposals and also implemented many of his own ideas, transforming the borough by the end of the 1930s.

1923 Summer – Beauport Park house, built 1763-66, was completely gutted by fire. It was rebuilt.

1924 Jan – John Logie Baird (1888-1946) gave the world’s first demonstration of television, at his lodging house 21 Linton Crescent. A Scot, he had moved to Hastings in the autumn of 1922 to recover from illness. He used his time to carry out experiments on making television, and one day while out walking along the cliffs to Fairlight Glen he ‘invented a means of seeing by wireless’. He rented a room above a Queens Arcade shop, where in early 1923 he made the first moving television picture in the world. After moving out of the Arcade, he carried on experimenting at his lodgings, and in January 1924 he showed the result to a newspaper reporter. Baird gave the first-ever public demonstration of television in Selfridges store in London in April 1925. His other firsts were video recording (1927), transatlantic television (1928) and the transmission of high definition colour pictures (1937).

1924 Summer – After four years building work, the town’s biggest printing firm FJ Parsons Ltd – publisher of the Hastings Observer – moved into its new headquarters, 53 Cambridge Road, where it stayed for 60 years.

1924 Summer – The Hastings Golf Club moved into Fishponds Farmhouse in Barley Lane, which was to be its base until 1958. Until then its clubhouse had been at the junction of Barley Lane and Rocklands Lane. The club leased Fishponds from the Milward estate, plus much of the surrounding farmland to create a quality 18-hole course.

1924 Sept – The round retail fishmarket at the bottom of High Street was closed by the Council, saying only four of its stalls were in use, and it needed £250 worth of repairs. It was demolished in March 1928 and its site was taken over as a turning circle for the new trolleybus system being installed around the town. The site is now a car park.

1924-25 – The group of buildings known as Reeves Corner, 1-3 Bank Buildings at the bottom of Havelock Road facing the Memorial clocktower, were demolished and replaced by the Westminster Bank (NatWest today) and a large shop. Remains of the early-19th century wooden bridge over the Priory Stream were found when digging the front foundations of the bank.

1925 – The first public telephone boxes were put up.

1925 May 22 – The town’s new electricity power station at Broomgrove opened, replacing the one in Earl Street (the chimney of which was demolished in mid-1926).

1926 – The Hastings Pier Company decided to carry out many major changes to the pier from this time onwards. It began in 1926 with a three-year programme of widening (from 45 feet to 90 feet) all of the company’s part of the pier as far south as the inland side of the pavilion, starting at the parade extension. In July 1926 a new ‘pavilion’, used as a theatre, opened on the west side of the newly widened part of the pier, close to the parade extension. Also that year, several buildings were attached to the north end of the main pavilion, including a refreshments saloon.

1926 – A new road, called Rye Road, was built connecting Red Lake with northern Winchelsea Road.

1926 Jan – The Priory Road boys school re-opened as a selective central school for boys aged 11+, instead of from 7+ as previously. In 1944 it became the Hastings Secondary Modern School for Boys. It is now several flats/maisonettes.

1926 Jan – Work began on the removal of the large group of fishing-related buildings known as Mercers Bank, on the beach between the bottom of All Saints Street and Bourne Street. This was a mixture of net shops, store-rooms, blacksmiths and workshops that had grown up  on this site since early in the 19th century. Hastings Council wanted to remove most, if not all, the buildings in order to tidy up the area, widen Rock-a-Nore Road and make make more room for facilities for the tourist industry. The fishermen saw the scheme as part of the Council’s semi-secret long-term policy to force them off the beach so it could be used by tourist businesses. The clearance was not finished until late 1929, leaving just three net shops in place (and still there today). The road was widened in the spring of 1930.

 1926 Jan 26 – In London, John Logie Baird gave his first public demonstration of television, following his invention of it in Hastings in 1923-24.

1926 March 25 – Halton Baths were opened by the mayor.

1926 July – Messers Woolworth bought the block of 2-6 Wellington Place and 15-20 Pelham Street, which they soon demolished and replaced with the ‘threepenny and sixpenny’ store they ran until January 2009.

1926 Late July – Civil engineer Sidney Little (1885-1961) was appointed Hastings Council’s borough and water engineer to implement a large-scale redevelopment plan. This was to regenerate the town he described as ‘Like some beauty-queen in decrepitude’. He became known as King Concrete for the many important schemes he initiated, and was probably the single most influential Council person up to the Second World War. A leading project was to rebuild many miles of the town’s poor quality roadways, with all the seafront as the priority.

1927 – The Hastings Coastguard Station in Marine Parade closed, and Fairlight Station became the Hastings area headquarters. St Leonards Station, on the corner of Bexhill Road and Cinque Ports Way, also closed at this time, although the Rocket Apparatus Station remained there for many years. The west end of Marine Parade, between Pelham Place and George Street, containing the former Coastguard building, was renamed Sturdee Place in mid-1927 by Hastings Council, after Admiral Sir Doveton Sturdee.

1927 April – The house Johns Place off Cambridge Road was purchased, for conversion into the town’s museum, as it is today.

1927 April 6 – Opening of the new White Rock Pavilion by the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII), on the site of the East Sussex Hospital. Prior to this the borough engineer Sidney Little had rebuilt part of the promenade and road at White Rock close to the east side of the pier. On this day the prince also witnessed the handing-over ceremony of 69 acres of the Firehills to the Council, which had bought them in order to stop the spread of housing development from the adjoining Fairlight Cove. In addition, the prince opened the newly-levelled recreation ground in Bexhill Road.

1927 Sept 26 – Opening of the rebuilt Plummers store in Robertson Street (now Debenhams).

1927 Oct – St Leonards Pier owner John Gardner offered to sell it to Hastings Council for £9,000, but they refused. In March 1928 Gardner rented the pier to a new company, who added many bright and attractive features to it, but then gave up in early 1929. Gardner subsequently ran the pier till 1933.

1927 Winter – Falaise Road was created, and Falaise Hall and the Bowls Pavilion in White Rock Gardens were built.

1928 – ‘Slum clearance’ started in the Old Town, the long-term project that ended with The Bourne being constructed in the early 1960s. The first people made homeless were re-housed in the new council housing in Hardwicke Road, Halton. The main clearance started in 1935.

1928 April 1 – The tram service started being replaced by trolleybuses. The transition took place gradually while overhead wiring was renewed and extended, and the tram rails were lifted and the road surface made good. The last tram ran on 13 March 1929. The retail fishmarket at the bottom of High Street (where the small car park is today) was demolished in 1928, and this area became a turning circle for trolleybuses. The trams were never used elsewhere, but were sold off at scrap prices, and many became rural caravans or chicken sheds.

1928 June – A new open-air school for delicate children was opened, behind 150 Athelstan Road.

1928 June – Earl Jellicoe opened the large new British Legion headquarters building in a former warehouse in Devonshire Road, between Station Road and Middle Street.

1928 Sept – Hastings Police set up a ‘flying squad’, equipped with powerful motorbikes with sidecars.

1928 Sept 26 – Opening of the new Hastings Museum at Johns Place. The museum’s former space in the Brassey Institute was then available for the library to expand. In 1932 the Durbar Hall was added to Johns Place.

1928 Nov 12 – Death of Henry Cousins, well-known local historian and businessman, in his 86th year. He organised the first Hastings carnival, in 1895.

1929 Early – Baldslow Road was rebuilt.

1929 March – The Silverhill Picture House, on the corner of London Road and Beaufort Road, showed ‘talking pictures’, probably the first cinema in Hastings to have non-silent movies.

1929 March 11 – A major fire swept the Firehills and surrounding land to the north and west. The Observer reported there were ‘four square miles of blackened countryside. … The fire raged all day and into the night.’

1929 March 13 – The last Hastings tram ran, between Silverhill and St Helens. The trams were replaced by eight open-top double-decker trolleybuses and 50 single-deckers. The Hastings Tramways Company ran the trolleybuses until late 1935. when the company was bought by Maidstone and District Motor Services Ltd. In 1936 the power station in Parker Road, set up in 1905 to run the trams, closed down and power was taken from the municipal service. In 1939 48 new double-decker trolleybuses were ordered, and remained in service until 1959, when diesel-powered buses replaced them.

1929 Late May – The town’s first traffic lights were set up as an experiment, at the junction of Norman Road and London Road. This was successful and the first permanent lights were installed here and at White Rock-Robertson Street on 31 October 1934.

1929 May 6 – New public baths opened at Silverhill.

1929 June – Messrs Wilson & Sons large new café and bakery opened at Kings Road (and it is still there).

1929 June – The Public Library in Claremont had been extensively improved, following the Museum’s departure, and the lending library re-opened this month.

1929 Aug – Hastings Council gave the go-ahead to building a large new water reservoir at Great Sanders, Sedlescombe, as designed by Sidney Little.

1929 Nov 25 – The new St Ethelburga’s Church, at the bottom of Filsham Road, was dedicated. It replaced St Saviour’s mission church.

1929 Dec 13 – Hastings Council adopted Sydney Little’s Front Line Improvement Scheme, reclaiming land from the sea in order to build a new seafront. The first section was between Marine Parade and White Rock (there was no through road past the Queens Hotel prior to this). The £111,300 section included the world’s first underground car park, 846 feet long by 60 feet wide, backed by sunken gardens in Robertson Terrace. Plus there was a new raised sea wall to protect against flooding. Work started in late March 1930 and was finished in December 1931.

1929-30 – All Hastings Pier’s substructure under the sea-end pavilion and to seaward of it was replaced as necessary, and the pier was widened on both sides of this pavilion. There were many other changes to the pier from this time onwards, including a small bandstand being built on the point at the sea-end of the pier; it opened in the spring of 1931. In 1931-32 the pier’s landing stage was doubled in width and extended 60 feet to the west.

1929-30 – Major improvements were carried out on Sedlescombe Road North, including road widening.

1930 Feb 3 – The 23-year old Katie McMullen started work as head laundress at Hastings Workhouse, having moved to Hastings from Tyneside . She married Hastings Grammar School teacher Tom Cookson in 1940, started writing books in 1946 and by the 1980s had become Britain’s top-selling novelist: Catherine Cookson. She was born on 20 June 1906 in East Jarrow.

1930 Feb 17 – The new main post office in Cambridge Road was opened, after three years construction. Prior to that it was at 1 Queens Road, where the Halifax Building Society is today. On 14 July a new telephone exchange opened upstairs at the post office (it had been at 52 Cambridge Road since 1894).

1930 Spring – Rock-a-Nore Road was widened as part of Old Town improvement scheme.

1930 May 24 – The new Salvation Army Hall in St Andrews Square was opened, replacing the old ‘Iron Fort’ with a brick-built structure.

1931 Feb 13 – Hastings Council agreed Sidney Little’s plan to spend £49,200 on improving the promenade between the west end of the White Rock Baths and London Road. This included building Bottle Alley, with its panels of broken glass set in concrete, plus bastions, shelters and seats, and upgrading the sea wall. Work started in November 1933, and was completed with the opening of the Alley on 12 May 1934.

1931 Feb 28 – Lady Willingdon, accompanied by Lord Willingdon, Viceroy-Elect of India, laid the foundation stone of the Durbar Hall extension to Hastings Museum. This was to house the Indian collection left to the town by Lord Brassey, Lady Willingdon’s father.

1931 March 3 – There was a serious fire at Breeds’ Brewery, Bourne Street.

1931 April 29 – The first Hastings lifeboat to have an engine, the Cyril and Lilian Bishop, replaced the 30-year old rowing and sailing lifeboat Charles Arkcoll II. During her 19 years at Hastings she was launched 99 times and saved 34 lives. She also went to Dunkirk at the end of May 1940 and helped rescue an unknown number of troops, probably many hundreds. She was replaced in 1950 by the MTC.

1931 June 27 – The greatly improved White Rock Baths were opened by Earl Howe; £34,000 had been spent on them, one of Sidney Little’s proposals.

1931 July 6 – The new Hastings railway station was opened, following complete rebuilding, at a cost of £200,000.

1931 July 2-8 – The famous aviator Amy Johnson took passengers on flights from a field by Fairlight Church in her Gypsy Moth two-seater biplane Jason III. In May 1930, aged 26, she had become the first woman to fly solo to Australia, using a very similar Gypsy Moth.

1931 Oct 13 – A large clubroom for the many unemployed people in the town was opened for the winter. It was above Central Hall, in Bank Buildings. On 26 November about 500 unemployed people marched from Silchester Road to the town hall. The clubroom closed on 25 March 1932.

1931 Nov 22 – A large and enthusiastic crowd packed the Cinema De Luxe to hear General Higgins, leader of the Salvation Army, give a stirring speech.

1931 Nov 26 – About 500 unemployed people marched from Silchester Road to the town hall, carrying red and white banners, and singing to tunes from an accordion.

1931 Dec – Hastings Council purchased from the Sayer family land on the east side of Rye Road on which to build council houses and a school. In 1937 the Council bought from the Sayers much more land for housing, north of Rock Lane and on both sides of Rye Road.

1931 Dec 8 – The new seafront between Marine Parade and White Rock was opened by the Minister of Health. This was called the Front Line Improvement Scheme (the ‘front line’ was the name then given to all of the town’s border with the sea). The large terrace of Victorian houses and other buildings called Beach Terrace, opposite Pelham Place and at the west end of Marine Parade, had been demolished in mid-1931 to make way for the new seafront.

1932 – The Maidstone and District bus company leased the corner of the Central Cricket Ground nearest the town hall to use as a coach station.

1932 Jan 12 – The new Employment Exchange opened in Priory Street, on the corner of Cornwallis Terrace, having moved from 37 Havelock Road. I

1932 Feb – Lovers Seat was heavily vandalised and had to be replaced.

1932 April 29 – The Durbar Hall extension to the museum was opened.

1932 May 14 – The last theatrical production took place at the Gaiety Theatre, in Queens Road. It re-opened as the Gaiety Cinema on 12 December 1932.

1932 June – The former University School in Holmesdale Gardens was acquired by the hospital. It was demolished and a nurses’ home opened on its site in July 1934.

1932 Aug 8 – The new Regal Cinema, on the corner of London Road and Station Approach, was opened by the mayor.

1932-33 Winter – The whole frontage of Hastings Pier abutting the parade extension was rebuilt in the fashionable art-deco style. It survived, with some changes, until the 2010 fire.

c1933 – Wards Shop, the outfitters, opened on the site of the old Post Office, on the corner of Queens Road and York Gardens.

1933 Early – The boating lake on the beach in front of the Old Town was built, using 60 unemployed men to dig the large hole.

1933 May 27 – The Bathing Pool at West St Leonards was officially opened, along with new facilities at White Rock Baths. The pool, created by Sidney Little, was said to be the largest in the UK (and possibly Europe), being 330 feet by 90 feet, with a capacity of 800,000 gallons and seating for 2,500 people. It was a great success, having 33,000 visitors in its first week. But it was not financially viable in the long term, and it closed in 1959. In 1960 it passed into the hands of Alderman Sid Withers, who converted it into a down-market holiday camp. It closed in 1986 and was demolished in May 1993.

1933 July 27 – Sainsbury opened a new Hastings store, at 14-16 Wellington Place, on land bought from Hastings Council.

1933 Aug – Hastings Council agreed to buy 17 acres of Pebsham Farm as the possible site of an aerodrome.

1933 Sept – Following the collapse of John Gardner’s St Leonards Pier-owning company, he sold it to two London brothers, David and Philip Lannon. They carried out many major changes over the following winter, and in March 1934 it was relaunched as the ‘New Palace Pier’.

1934 – The large section of Old London Road between Clifton Road and Baldslow was given the new name of The Ridge.

1934 March 9 – Hastings Council agreed to buy 36 acres of Bembrook Farm for £10,000 from Major Carlisle Sayer for re-housing the dispossessed from the Old Town redevelopment. The sale took place in November 1934.

1934 April 14 – At a meeting held in the large house Varenna, on the corner of Filsham Road and The Green, a local branch of the British Union of Fascists was set up.

1934 May 12 – Bottle Alley, the new promenade linking White Rock and Warrior Square, was officially opened.

1934 July 14 – Lady Willingdon officially opened the new Nurses’ Home at the Royal East Sussex Hospital, Cambridge Road.

1934 Oct 31 – The town’s first permanent traffic lights were set up at the junctions of Norman Road/London Road and White Rock/Robertson Street, following the May 1929 experiment at Norman Road/London Road.

1934 Nov – The Ministry of Health gave the go-ahead for a major ‘slum clearance’ project in the Old Town (actually a way of building a new road, The Bourne, without having to pay displaced home owners the true value of their ‘slum’ property). Over 600 people were to be re-housed in new council housing to be built at Bembrook, Ore and Hollington, despite much opposition. Work started early in 1935 and caused much distress over the following years. The scheme not only damaged the lives of hundreds of local people, but also destroyed much of the character of the Old Town. The Bourne opened in 1963.

1934 Dec 14 – Hastings Council agreed Sidney Little’s plan to rebuild the promenade and sea wall from London Road to the Bathing Pool. The work was completed by December 1938.

1935 – The 1935 edition of the Visitors’ Guide described Hastings as ‘The 1066 Town with the 1966 Outlook’.

1935 May 5 – Arrival of the first electric train to enter Hastings, on the newly-electrified Ore-Brighton line. It was inaugurated on 4 July.

1935 May 6 – The silver jubilee of King George V was celebrated around the borough, especially in the Old Town, where a big programme of events began at 4.30am and ended at midnight!

1935 May 10 – Amherst Gardens off Amherst Road were donated to the town by Alderman Thorpe as open space for perpetuity.

1935 May 18 – Death of Frederick Notley, founder of the Yelton Hotel (Notley backwards) in 1892. It was then just one house, 4 White Rock, but is now the much bigger White Rock Hotel.

1935 Aug 31 – John Manwaring Baines started work as Museum Curator. The first edition of his important book Historic Hastings was published in 1955. This was to be the seminal work on the town’s history.

1935 Nov 11 – The Hastings Tramways Company, running the town’s trolleybus service, was taken over by its main rival, Maidstone and District Motor Services, part of the British Electric Traction group.

1936 – The Hastings Pier Company decided to greatly improve the pier’s sea-end pavilion (then still looking like a barn) by removing all the buildings close to its northern end and extending it, to include two large pointed towers. Most of the work was completed by the summer of 1937, but there had been major problems with the pier’s substructure, which had to largely rebuilt underneath the pavilion, at a cost of over £20,000.

1936 Feb 12 – Sir Oswald Mosley, leader of the British Union of Fascists, addressed a fascist meeting at the White Rock Pavilion. Anti-fascists gave out leaflets outside the Pavilion.

1936 June – Alfred Dyer, editor of the Hastings Observer and a leading figure in the local Establishment, was knighted. In July 1946 he resigned as chairman of the Hastings Conservative Association, a position he had held for 25 years. The association thanked him for ‘untiring and loyal work for the party’.

1936 June 15 – Opening of the new underground car parks between Hastings Pier and Grand Parade, St Leonards, by the Transport Minister, Hore-Belisha.

1936 Nov 30 – Laying of the foundation stone of Marine Court, on the site of 22-32 Marina. When it opened in 1938 the 14-storey, 170-feet high building was described as the highest dwelling place in Britain. It was modelled on the new ocean liner Queen Mary, launched in 1936. In the Second World War the whole building was requisitioned for service personnel. In the 1960s, the ballroom on the east end became the highly popular Witch Doctor Club, and later the Cobweb, where pop stars David Bowie, Status Quo, Geno Washington and Georgie Fame played.

1937 – The fishermen set up the Hastings Fishermen’s Protection Society to defend themselves against attempts by Hastings Council to force the fleet to move to Rye so that their beach could be used for amusements.

1937 Jan – The Hastings car registration letters DY were to have prefixes from this time, starting with ADY.

1937 Feb 18 – A huge fire destroyed the large agricultural warehouse in Earl Street, the Strickland family business.

1937 Dec – The fishermen began a legal action in the High Court to determine their rights over the Stade. Hastings Council was trying to force the fleet to leave the beach and go to Rye, so that the area could become a profitable tourist amenity. The Hastings Fishermens Protection Society was formed to pursue the case, but the Second World War put the matter on hold until May 1947 (cf).

1938 – Work began on building the massive new water reservoir at Darwell, near Mountfield. This was considered to be the peak of Sidney Little’s engineering achievements. The war halted the construction, which was completed in 1950.

1938 Feb – Southern Railway decided not to electrify the Sevenoaks to Hastings line, a move described as a ‘bombshell’ for Hastings and Bexhill.

1938 Feb – Hastings Council started a new travelling library service.

 1938 March 19 – Opening of the magnificent Ritz Cinema (later called the ABC) in Cambridge Road. It was the biggest and best cinema in the town, with a beautiful organ, Remains of the medieval priory were found while digging the foundations. It was later demolished and replaced by a Sainsburys supermarket, which is now ESK.

1938 April 1 – The borough boundary was extended by the 1937 Hastings Extension Act. The new land included parts of Ore and Fairlight.

1938 April 19 – The true identity of native Canadian wilderness campaigner Grey Owl was revealed in the Evening Argus as being Archie Belaney, who was born in Hastings in 1888.

1938 July – Hastings Council accepted Major Sayer’s generous offer of selling North’s Seat and the acre of surrounding land to the Council for £100. The seat had been replaced by a large viewing platform in 1930, which was to be used as a look-out during World War Two. But this was vandalised in 1982 and so was demolished and replaced by two seats, with a large round direction plaque, which is still there. Much of the rest of Fairlight Down was acquired by Hastings Council in following years.

1938 Sept 28 – The ‘New Palace Pier’ (St Leonards Pier) was put up for auction, but the highest bid was £34,750, which was insufficient, so it was withdrawn.

1938 Sept 30 – The large Dengate’s furniture store in Queens Road was gutted by fire. This was the last day for the volunteer fire brigade, the last such brigade in the country (and the first to be formed), being replaced by professionals from 1 October.

1938 Late – The Hastings branch of the Communist Party published a pamphlet called The Other Hastings, saying that there were ‘two boroughs of Hastings, that of the rich and that of the poor’. Working people received ‘low wages, bad housing conditions, long hours of work,’ and were unable in many cases unable to buy even sufficient food for their families.

1938 Dec 17 – Opening of the Sun Lounge (later called the Marina Pavilion, and now Azure), near the Royal Victoria Hotel.

1939 – A row of 20 semi-detached houses was built at the bottom of Harold Road with bomb shelters included.

1939 Jan – The Bourne Street Wesleyan Chapel closed and was then demolished and rebuilt, opening 20 March 1940.

1939 May – Laying of the foundation stone of Red Lake infants’ school, on the east side of Rye Road, the town’s first new school for 40 years.

1939 May – A new company, the Fairlight Mining Company, leased land from Major Sayer between the top of Warren Glen and Fairlight Church to dig for sand. It created the large quarry at the top of the glen, and a smaller one nearer the church which is today’s Country Park car park.

1939 May 7 – A large demonstration took place along the seafront by members of the labour movement in protest against unemployment and the forthcoming war.

1939 Sept 1 – In a three-day evacuation of London on 1-3 September, about 7,000 people were brought to stay in Hastings.

1939 Sept 3 – The Second World War started on this day, but little happened locally before the early summer of 1940. Hastings Pier remained open initially, although with scaled-down operations, but St Leonards Pier closed in September 1939 and never reopened to the public. The first bombs fell on the town on 26 July 1940 and the last flying bomb incident was reported locally on 8 August 1944. During the war the town experienced 85 enemy air attacks of various kinds. A total of 550 high explosive bombs fell in the borough, including 27 which failed to explode, plusabout 750 small inceniaries and 15 flying bombs. These attacks killed 154 people, seriously injured 260 and slightly injured 439 people. 463 houses and other buildings were demolished and 14,818 were damaged.  

1939 Oct 14 – Heavy rain and high spring tides brought the worst town centre flooding since before the First World War.

1940 Jan – Railings were put up on the high pavements in the Old Town, as protection for pedestrians in the blackout. They were left in place after the war.

1940 March 29 – The Hastings fishing boat Happy Return RX 198 was blown up by a mine off Rye Harbour and her two crewmen killed.

1940 May 22 – Refugees from France and Belgium were landed on Hastings Pier by a Belgian tug. Two men were carrying 13 million Belgian francs, the funds of the Belgian railway.

1940 Late May – The Hastings lifeboat Cyril and Lilian Bishop took part in the evacuation of British troops from Dunkirk. The larger fishing boats went to Dover but were not used.

1940 June – Foreigners were forced to move inland at least 20 miles from the coast, affecting many local businesses. Hastings was included in the ‘defence area’ so no one could enter except on business. All local direction signs were taken down. A house-to-house collection of all scrap metal started. Many London evacuees were moved to Wales. Both Hastings Pier and St Leonards Pier had been requisitioned by military authorities by early 1940, and early that summer each had two sections removed, one near the middle of the pier, and the other adjoining the promenade, in order to stop invading Germans using the piers as landing stages. Summerfields school became the temporary town hall.

1940 July – A night-time curfew was imposed.

1940 July 21 – Three thousand Hastings children were evacuated to Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire.

1940 July 26 – The first bombs fell on the town, many on the West Hill, when a single raider swept across the town early in the morning and dropped 11 high explosives. There was then a lull, until the ‘Battle of Britain’ started on 14 August, and there many attacks through to November. The mayor set up the Air Raid Distress Fund.

1940 Aug – The Hastings Observer launched an appeal to raise £5,000 to buy a Spitfire; the money was donated within a month.

1940 Sept – The RAF Fairlight radar station became operational. It was located at today’s picnic site, on the north side of Fairlight Road, adjoining Martineau Lane. It was to remain an RAF Domestic Camp (living base) for many years.

1940 Sept 11 – Voluntary evacuation of the town began, and over 20,000 people went. Within days, the population of Hastings had fallen to 22,000 (pre-war it had been 65,000).

1940 Oct 14 – The first anti-aircraft guns were set up in the town.

1941 Dec 8-13 – A Dig for Victory Week exhibition was held at the White Rock Pavilion by Hastings Council in co-operation with the Ministry of Agriculture to encourage all garden holders to grow food and to recruit an extra allotmenteers in the borough. Similar exhibitions were held each autumn for the next three years, with the 3-day event in 1944 attracting 5,000 people. By June 1942 there were about 500 wartime allotments.

1942 Sept 22 – By this day 2,714 Morrison steel table air raid shelters had been issued to local houses, nearly all of them free of charge.

1943 March 11 – The heaviest attack of the war took place, with much destruction over a wide area caused by about 20 aircraft using machine guns and dropping 25 bombs. There were 39 deaths and 90 people injured. On this day Hastings councillors were told that between 230 and 250 people had slept in St Clements Cvaes over the last month, but no one was ‘residing’there.

1943 March 17 – The Hastings fishing boat EVG RX 152 was blown up by a mine picked up in her trawl. Her crew survived. But the three crew of the Boy Billie RX 61 were killed in the fishing fleet’s worst tragedy of the war when the boat was hit by a mine on 10 April 1943.

1943 April – Hastings Council decided to lay on a water supply to all allotment fields to help grow food.

1943 May 23 – In the second heaviest wartime attack, at least 25 people were killed and 85 injured. The Swan Hotel in the High Street and the Albany Hotel in Robertson Terrace were both destroyed.

1944 Feb 4 – Field Marshal Montgomery inspected troops at the Pilot Field in preparation for the D-Day invasion of Europe.

1944 March 7 – The shore-end of St Leonards Pier was seriously damaged by fire, destroying its pavilion and surrounding buildings. It had also suffered gale damage in early February 1943 and was hit by bombs earlier in the war. The pier owners never attempted to restore it and It never re-opened after the war.

1944 March 12 – The highly respected local artist E Lelsie Badham was killed when his house in Priory Road, opposite Emmanuel Church, was hit by a high explosive bomb. The last bomb to fall in the town was on 27 March 1944, landing at the bottom of Filsham Road.

1944 June 15 – The first flying bomb was brought down in the Hastings area, east of Glyne Gap. Another 14 flying bombs came down in the area in the following weeks, the last being on 2 August. Most fell on open ground. Five batteries of heavy anti-aircraft guns were set up, including at Sea Road, the Oval and the East and West Hills. One of the Auxiliary Territorial Service officers at the West Hill battery was Mary Churchill, daughter of the prime minister Winston. St Leonards Parish Church was destroyed on 29 July. One fell on Shearbarn Farm on 20 July, killing the occupant, Miss Ethel Maria Barnes, the last person in the borough to die as a result of enemy action. The last flying bomb incident was on 2 August. The last alert was sounded at 7.15pm on 9 November 1944.

1944 Autumn – Many of the wartime restrictions were lifted. The last alert was sounded on 9 November.

1946 Early – The Royal Victoria Buildings, the row of shops on the promenade opposite the Royal Victoria Hotel, were demolished.

1946 June 8 – The inland end of Hastings Pier reopened for the first time since 1940, following the replacement of the 10 yards of the parade extension’s decking which was removed in that year. The sea-end of of the pier reopened in the summer of 1947 following the rebuilding of the 25 yards of the mid-pier which had been taken away in 1940.

1946 Nov – A large part of the harbour arm collapsed, leaving a 36 feet wide gap in it close to the seaward end.

1947 May 9 – A legal agreement – called the ‘Deed of Compromise’ – was signed by Hastings Council and the Hastings Fishermen’s Society giving the fishermen certain limited rights to occupy some of the Stade, but in return they allowed the Council to do what it wanted on the rest of the beach. The east end of the Stade became Rock-a-Nore car park, and an open-air amusements centre opened near the Lifeboat House.

1947 June 23 – Fire destroyed the large Elite Cinema (the former Royal Concert Hall) in Warrior Gardens, in one of the biggest and most spectacular fires in the history of the town. Flats were later built on the site.

1947 Oct 14 – A wartime underground resistance HQ was found in Beauport Park after some ground subsided.

1947 Dec 1 – Death of the sinister character Aleister Crowley at Netherwood, on the Ridge.

1947-48 – A large estate of council houses was built in Rock Lane, using prisoners of war as labourers.

1948 June 5 – Start-up of the miniature railway line along on the beach by the Fishmarket (still there).

1948 April 21 – A motorcycle speedway track opened at the Pilot Field. The racing immediately became the most popular sport in the town, attracting up to 10,000 fans at a time. But the noise and dust from the cinder track annoyed nearby residents, and Sussex Assizes granted them an injunction banning Hastings Council from running the speedway. Its last meeting was held on 5 October 1949.

1948 July 14 – The mayor officially opened the Hastings Aerodrome laid out by Hastings Council at Pebsham, where the football pitches are today next to Pebsham tip. The first take-off was an Auster Autocrat. It had been an aerodrome site, used occasionally, since 1930s. It closed in 1959.

1948 Aug 27 – The Poor Law Institution and Municipal Hospital in Frederick Road were renamed St Helens Hospital, under the control of the Ministry of Health, following the creation of the National Health Service on 5 July 1948. St Helens, and other local hospitals, was replaced by the Conquest in 1992, with the last patients moving out in March 1994. By early 1998 all the hospital on the west side of Frederick Road had been demolished, save for the two gateposts. Much of the 1837 workhouse on the east side has survived and is now housing.

1949 Feb 8 – Anabel Farnfield became the first female mayor of Hastings.

1949 March 2 – The former Town Hall in the High Street, which for many years had been a second-hand furniture store, re-opened as the Museum of Local History on the ground floor and a branch of the Claremont public library on the upper floor. The museum took over the whole building in July 1959, but it was closed by the Council in 2014.

1949 March 31 – The Hastings fishing boat Pioneer RX 255 ran on to the Hooks Ledge rocks under the cliff at Fairlight in a thick fog. The lifeboat and Coastguards were unable to find the vessel, even though the three crewmen could be heard, and they all drowned. This was the biggest tragedy to hit the local fishing community for many years.

1949 May 9 – The 1,000th council house was opened by the mayor, on the Rock Lane estate.

1949 June 6 – A border of smelly flowers for blind people was opened in St Leonards Gardens. A railing alongside the border had Braille messages on it describing each flower. The Quarry Hill Blind Home, next to the Gardens, had re-opened in July 1948 after being bombed on 24 September 1942.

1949 July – Work started on building the new Lifeboat House, an unattractive shed on the beach near the harbour arm. It was completed in December 1949, after which the well-designed 1882 house opposite the Cutter pub was let to sea scouts until 1959, when it was demolished as part of a road widening scheme.

1949 July 12 – Hastings Council gave planning permission for farmer Frederick (‘Freddy’) Funnell to use some of his land at Shearbarn Farm in Barley Lane for camping for three years. This was the beginning of his conversion of the farm into a major caravan and camping site over the following years.

1949 Oct 20 – The heaviest storm for many years caused major flooding in the town centre.

1949 Dec 7 – The new Fairlight Village Hall, at Fairlight Cove, was officially opened